This article is now hosted on csharpindepth.com

I'm gradually moving all my C# articles to the web site for my book, C# in Depth. This article has already moved. I'm leaving the content here so that existing links still work, but I won't be updating this page.

Please visit the new location for this article.

C# and beforefieldinit

The differences between static constructors and type initializers

Some implementations of the singleton pattern rely on the behaviour of static constructors and type initializers, in particular with respect to the time at which they are invoked.

The C# specification (ECMA 334) states in section 17.11:

The static constructor for a class executes at most once in a given application domain. The execution of a static constructor is triggered by the first of the following events to occur within an application domain:

  • An instance of the class is created.
  • Any of the static members of the class are referenced.

The CLI specification (ECMA 335) states in section 8.9.5:

  1. A type may have a type-initializer method, or not.
  2. A type may be specified as having a relaxed semantic for its type-initializer method (for convenience below, we call this relaxed semantic BeforeFieldInit)
  3. If marked BeforeFieldInit then the type's initializer method is executed at, or sometime before, first access to any static field defined for that type
  4. If not marked BeforeFieldInit then that type's initializer method is executed at (i.e., is triggered by):
    • first access to any static or instance field of that type, or
    • first invocation of any static, instance or virtual method of that type

The C# specification implies that no types with static constructors should be marked with the beforefieldinit flag. Indeed, this is upheld by the compiler, but with a slightly odd effect. I suspect many programmers believe (as I did for a long time) that the following classes were semantically equivalent:

class Test
{
    static object o = new object();
}


class Test
{
    static object o;

    static Test()
    {
        o = new object();
    }
}

The two classes are not, in fact, the same. They both have type initializers - and the two type initializers are the same. However, the first does not have a static constructor, whereas the second does. This means that the first class can be marked as beforefieldinit and have its type initializer invoked at any time before the first reference to a static field in it. The static constructor doesn't even have to do anything. This third class is equivalent to the second:

class Test
{
    static object o = new object();

    static Test()
    {
    }
}

I believe this is a source of significant confusion - particularly in terms of singleton implementations.

The curious nature of beforefieldinit - lazy or not?

The beforefieldinit flag has a strange effect, in that it can not only mean that a type initializer is invoked earlier than that of an equivalent type without the flag - it could even be invoked later, or not at all. Consider the following program:

using System;

class Driver
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        Console.WriteLine ("Starting Main");
        // Invoke a static method on Test
        Test.EchoAndReturn ("Echo!");
        Console.WriteLine ("After echo");
        // Reference a static member of Test
        string y = Test.x;
        // Use the value just to avoid compiler cleverness
        if (y != null)
            Console.WriteLine ("After field access");
    }
}

class Test
{
    public static string x = EchoAndReturn ("In type initializer");

    public static string EchoAndReturn (string s)
    {
        Console.WriteLine (s);
        return s;
    }
}

The results of running the above are quite varied. The runtime could decide to run the type initializer on loading the assembly to start with:

In type initializer
Starting Main
Echo!
After echo
After field access

Or perhaps it will run it when the static method is first run...

Starting Main
In type initializer
Echo!
After echo
After field access

Or even wait until the field is first accessed...

Starting Main
Echo!
After echo
In type initializer
After field access

(In theory, the type initializer could even be run after "Echo!" is displayed, but before "After echo" is displayed. I would be very surprised to see any runtime actually show this behaviour, however.) With a static constructor in Test, only the middle of these is possible. So, beforefieldinit can make the invocation of the type initializer even lazier (the last result) or more eager (the first result). I suspect even those developers who know of the existence of beforefieldinit may be surprised by this. The MSDN documentation for TypeAttributes.BeforeFieldInit is particularly poor in this respect. It describes the flag like this:

Specifies that calling static methods of the type does not force the system to initialize the type.

While this is true in the strictest possible sense, it certainly isn't the complete story - it suggests that the flag only makes the initialization lazier, not more eager.

What should be done?

I propose the following changes:

The above changes are all entirely backwards-compatible, and require no CLI modification.

Further thoughts (after discussion on newsgroups)

The first of the above proposals is definitely the most controversial. (The last isn't controversial at all, as far as I can see.) The reason is performance. Not many classes actually need the behaviour assumed by many C# programmers - most people need never know the difference, really. The JIT compiler, however, cares quite a lot: if a static member is used within a fairly tight loop, for instance, it makes a lot of sense to initialise the type before entering the loop, knowing thereafter that the type has already been initialised. When code is shared between app domains etc, I gather this becomes even more important. Making the performance of existing code decrease by recompilation with a new version of the framework would undoubtedly be unpopular. I'm therefore willing to concede as a less-than-ideal proposal - indeed I've only left it in this page for historical reasons (I dislike the idea of being a revisionist). The second proposal, however, is still important - both to allow classes which do have a static constructor to improve their performance with BeforeFieldInit semantics if appropriate, and to allow classes which currently only need a static constructor to get rid of BeforeFieldInit semantics to achieve this aim in a more self-documenting manner. (A junior developer is more likely to remove a static constructor which appears to be a no-op than to remove an attribute they don't fully understand.)



Back to the main page.